183 entries in Cards / Principles / Stacked Deck Stuff / Stay Stack
Creators Title Comments & References Source Page Categories
Russell "Rusduck" Duck Rusduck "Stay-Stack" System general observations, also with two decks
The Cardiste (Issue 1) 12
Tom Ransom On the Stay-Stack System cards do not have to be cut in center for the faro, handling idea
The Cardiste (Issue 4) 15
Russell "Rusduck" Duck More on the Stay-Stack
The Cardiste (Issue 4) 16
Edward Marlo New Deck P.M. version of "Progressive Miracle" described before
Faro Notes 27
Edward Marlo It's Mathematical stay stack principle applied to memorized deck, two effects
Faro Notes 40
Edward Marlo Alternative Procedures stay stack principle applied to memorized deck, see previous item
Faro Notes 43
Russell "Rusduck" Duck Fantabulous handling, shuffle
The Cardiste (Issue 5) 11
Alex Elmsley Stay-Stack Idea with two decks, face up into face down
Related to The Cardiste (Issue 5) 16
Russell "Rusduck" Duck Ambitious 52 cards come to the top in order, mates are always on the bottom
The Cardiste (Issue 6) 15
Edward Marlo Stay-Stack Miracle
The Cardiste (Issue 12) 7
Edward Marlo Stay-Stack Prediction with one and two decks, forcing a number with stay stack
The Cardiste (Issue 12) 8
Edward Marlo A Matching Routine stay stack routine with six phases
Variations Faro Controlled Miracles 31
Edward Marlo Added Note for Matching Routine stay stack routine, alternative phases
Faro Controlled Miracles 33
Edward Marlo Stay Stack Peek two cards peeked at, behind back performer reverses card, it's between the two selections, Marlo's Peek Deck
Faro Controlled Miracles 34
Edward Marlo Impromptu Peek Deck stay stack, secret incomplete faro condition
Faro Controlled Miracles 35
Edward Marlo Stay Stack note on stay stack
The Patented Shuffle (Issue 4 Transfers) 2
Edward Marlo Stay Stack Routine deck cut into four packets, mates on top and bottom of each, rest of order retained
The Patented Shuffle (Issue 4 Transfers) 6
Paul Swinford Opus Thirteen Gilbreath Principle & Faro Shuffle, new deck order
Faro Fantasy 37
Karl Fulves Self-Duplicating Set-ups exotic principle in which sequences are duplicated in a random outjog-sorting procedure
Related toVariationsAlso published here Epilogue (Issue 3) 19
Karl Fulves Gray Stak combining gray code and stay stack in a deck with eight cards, in the application a selection is divined, see also Addenda on page 60, for sixteen- and 32-Card Arrangements see reference
Related to Faro & Riffle Technique (Issue Gray Codes) 23
Edward Marlo Marlo's "Unknown" Speller three methods, stack and almost no stack, see also page 162 for note by Ackerman
Hierophant (Issue 2) 58
Edward Marlo, Russell "Rusduck" Duck Marlo on Stebbins/Stay-Stack shuffling new deck into Si Stebbins, faros
Related to Hierophant (Issue 2) 61
Edward Marlo Mental Lie thought-of card, spectator reads cards, performer catches lie, three methods
HEX! 45
Karl Fulves An Odd Gray Coincidence two packets from different decks, question and faro shuffling procedure before coincidence
Faro & Riffle Technique (Issue First Supplement) 57
Paul Swinford Against all Odds two spectators choose cards, they're mates
More Faro Fantasy 34
Paul Swinford Double Duper spectator and magician turn over a card, mates
More Faro Fantasy 32
Paul Swinford The Match Game spectator looses always
More Faro Fantasy 40
Edward Marlo Marlo's Peek Deck face-up/face-down faroed deck with secret incomplete faro condition
More Faro Fantasy 46
Paul Swinford The Elmsley Touch
Inspired by More Faro Fantasy 48
Paul Swinford Predicto Pair prediction of mates at named positions
More Faro Fantasy 27
Paul Swinford When Brothers Meet
More Faro Fantasy 30
Paul Swinford Double Brothers Joker finds mates of two selections
Related to More Faro Fantasy 35
Paul Swinford Duo Chango selections change into their own mates
More Faro Fantasy 38
Paul Swinford Pairs Foretold three mates removed by spectator are predicted
More Faro Fantasy 42
Paul Swinford Inventory instantly naming missing card, stay stack
More Faro Fantasy 25
Paul Swinford, Russell "Rusduck" Duck The Stay Stack information and applications
More Faro Fantasy 22
Paul Swinford Thought of Destruction about when it's worth to destroy the stay stack
More Faro Fantasy 44
Paul Swinford, Norman Gilbreath Gilbreath Revisited deck cut in three piles, one pile looked over, performer knows number of red and black cards in other piles, handling for Gilbreath's "Separating One Deck With One Shuffle" (Linking Ring, July 1958)
More Faro Fantasy 44
Paul Swinford Presentation of Marlo's Peek Deck spectator divines card
More Faro Fantasy 47
Karl Fulves Theoretical Readers edge marked stay stack to locate selection and its mate
Related to Epilogue (Issue 13) 104
Edward Marlo "Shades of the Half and Half Principle" Faro Controlling cards in Stay Stack
Hierophant (Issue 5-6) 274
Jon Racherbaumer A Few Seconds on Stay Stack
On the Clock Effect 9
Roy Walton Demi Demon mates are found
Variations Cardboard Charades 24
Earl Keyser Faro Ideas - Reflected Gray Stack sixteen-Card Arrangement & 32-Card Arrangement, solution
Inspired by Epilogue (Issue 16) 151
Roy Walton Right Number two mates find mate of selection, faro & stay stack
Kabbala — Volume 1 (Vol. 1 No. 5) 39
Gene Finnell Match Up several are cards selected, after a Klondike shuffle they end up next to pairs
Related to
  • "The Riser Repertoire" (MUM Vol 90 No. 1, June 2000)
Gene Finnell's Card Magic 7
Karl Fulves Self-Duplicating Set-ups exotic principle in which sequences are duplicated in a random outjog-sorting procedure
Also published here Riffle Shuffle Set-Ups 18
Edward Marlo Masterful Match Up two methods, stay stack
The Unexpected Card Book 83
Ted Gillam Pairs stay stack
Also published here Card Cavalcade II 87
Murray Bonfeld More Power Of Thought stay stack, faro, Penelope's Principle
Faro Concepts 48
Ken Krenzel Mental Matrix stay stack
Related to The Card Classics of Ken Krenzel 74
Karl Fulves Reflections properties and principles with the stay stack
Faro Possibilities 15
Karl Fulves The Tracking Faro stay stack type principle with two separate odd decks
Faro Possibilities 17
Edward Marlo, Martin A. Nash A Matching Routine
Inspired byVariations Ovation 9
Edward Marlo, Paul Curry The Joker Reads Minds spectator thinks of card and reads order of shuffled deck, spectator should misread joker as selection, it is divined, six methods
Also published here Hierophant (Issue The Last Hierophant) 5
Jeff Busby A Problem And An Interesting Sidelight reflection problem: how to make stay stack with one cut and one shuffle
The Solution: pack(et) torn in half and one half reversed via Klondike Shuffle
Curioser 13
Jeff Busby Interesting Sidelight dealing stay stack into any number of piles retains stay stack, with tables how to pick up the piles for up to five piles
  • General Rules For Pick Ups
  • Added Notes
Related to Curioser 14
Jeff Busby Red-Black Stay Stacks Same Color Reflection, Opposite Color Reflection
Curioser 20
Jeff Busby Cyclical Stack <-> Stay Stack
Curioser 21
Karl Fulves Reflection stay stack & gray code
Curioser 50
Charles Hudson Parity Notes
Inspired by Curioser 59
Jeff Busby The Constant Straight Routine straights show up despite shuffling and mixing, seven phases, with packet
Related to Curioser 21
Jeff Busby Polar Repulsion Straights "The same as Constant Straight Routine only more so!"
Related to Curioser 24
Jeff Busby Double Reflection Stack stay stack in which each half is mirrored in itself, no application
Curioser 26
R. Sid Spocane II Fascinating Pair mini stay stack used to produce a mate
Best of Friends 133
Randy Tanner Thinking Man's Poker using stay stack, clever
Apocalypse Vol. 6-10 (Vol. 7 No. 8) 955
Karl Fulves Replica Poker No. 40, ten cards, five are removed by spectator, remaining five cards are in same value-order, self-duplicating set-up
More Self-Working Card Tricks 52
Philip T. Goldstein The Mockingbird missing card divined, part of the "Birds of Prey" locations, Palindromic Rosary Stack
Amperthand 1
Karl Fulves The Stay Stak Constraint as stay stack features applies to problem in introduction
The Return Trip 25
Edward Marlo Incomplete Miracle card peeked at from incomplete faro condition, it is found (by glimpsing key in lower portion)
M.I.N.T. — Volume I 14
Edward Marlo Staggering Power of Thought mates found when dealing through two halves simultaneously
Inspired byVariations M.I.N.T. — Volume I 16
Edward Marlo Incomplete Matching Variation card peeked at from incomplete faro condition, mate found
Inspired by M.I.N.T. — Volume I 18
Edward Marlo The Matching Miracle pokerhand duplication from another deck, decks in reverse order
  • With Two Sealed Deck
  • For Stay-Stackers
  • For Memory Experts (only one deck)
  • For Card Cullers
  • Added Note
Related toVariationsAlso published here
  • The New Tops, July 1966
M.I.N.T. — Volume I 246
Roy Walton Cue Sheet "Doctor Cue" variations, location in small packet
Inspired by Prototype 13
Simon Aronson Mix and Match two decks riffle shuffled together and divided into two halves, one chosen from one half, performer shouts stop when the other one is dealt, the cards match
Related to The Aronson Approach 59
Simon Aronson Memorized Math on memorized deck in combination with mathematical principles
  • Stay Stacks
  • Counting
  • Interlocking Chains (also with one-way backs)
  • Duck and Deal (with formulas)
The Aronson Approach 113
Jon Racherbaumer, Niberco Late-Night Arising freely and fairly lost selection rises, using handkerchief, stay stack with dupliates
Inspired by Cardfixes 40
Jon Racherbaumer Sudden Sandwich challenge sandwich, stay stack with duplicates
Inspired by Cardfixes 43
Jon Racherbaumer The Dreamy Dream Clock mate of clock-selection predicted in pocket and hour reversed in deck
Variations Cardfixes 101
Jon Racherbaumer Beat the Clock
Cardfixes 106
Jon Racherbaumer The Broken Clock faro
Inspired by Cardfixes 147
Nick Trost Tale of the Tell credit information (last paragraph)
Cardfixes 172
Richard Vollmer Geschichte short history on the stay stack
Also published here
  • Richard Vollmer "Le Jeu Mirroir", 1984
Das Gespiegelte Kartenspiel 5
Richard Vollmer Das Prinzip des "Stay-Stack Systems" von Rusduck how the stay stack works
Also published here
  • Richard Vollmer "Le Jeu Mirroir", 1984
Das Gespiegelte Kartenspiel 5
Richard Vollmer Das Legen eines palindromischen Spiels how to set up a stay stack, several methods
Also published here
  • Richard Vollmer "Le Jeu Mirroir", 1984
Das Gespiegelte Kartenspiel 6
Richard Vollmer Die Eigenschaften des palindromischen Spiels characteristics of the stay stack, with 52 and 53 cards
Also published here
  • Richard Vollmer "Le Jeu Mirroir", 1984
Das Gespiegelte Kartenspiel 8
Christian Scherer Duplizität der Ereignisse - Eine Routine mit dem palindromischen Spiel longer stay stack routine, mates are found, six phases
Das Gespiegelte Kartenspiel 12
Christian Scherer Schlusswort including stay stack and faro oddity
Das Gespiegelte Kartenspiel 25
Peter Duffie Principles and Deceptions "An Easy Trip Through The Arithmetical Principles Of Card Magic - Part 3"
  • The Rusduck Stay Stack Principle
Profile (Issue 15) 6
Paul Swinford Stay Stack Finale one card is mated after faro shuffle, then two cards
Card File 12
Jack Birnman Sharper's Image after some shuffling (also by spectator) a two-handed game is dealt, performer receives a Full House with Aces and Kings, faro
MO — Modus Operandi (Issue 2) 15
Harry Lorayne Nine All Mine using mini stay stack
Apocalypse Vol. 16-20 (Vol. 16 No. 8) 2248
Peter Duffie Card Count-Down card thought-of from twelve-card packet, suit spelled, pairs dealt, value counted down in rest of the deck to find mate
Profile (Issue 16) 6
Peter Duffie Eleven Plus, Plus
Apocalypse Vol. 16-20 (Vol. 17 No. 2) 2319
Alex Elmsley Late Night Location stay stack with duplicates
Related toVariations The Collected Works of Alex Elmsley — Volume 2 372
Alex Elmsley Computer Dating removed selection is mated under fair conditions, stay stack
The Collected Works of Alex Elmsley — Volume 2 385
Russell "Rusduck" Duck, Alex Elmsley Stay Stack credit information
The Collected Works of Alex Elmsley — Volume 2 385
Alex Elmsley Empty and Full removed selection is mated under fair conditions, stay stack
The Collected Works of Alex Elmsley — Volume 2 387
Alex Elmsley Wedded Ambitions free selection, mate rises to top, stay stack
The Collected Works of Alex Elmsley — Volume 2 389
Alex Elmsley Topsy-Turvy Stay-Stack (A Problem) topsy-turvy stay stack with two decks
Related to The Collected Works of Alex Elmsley — Volume 2 391
Philip T. Goldstein Nexus performer's and spectator's selection are in same position in two piles
Thabbatical 82
Philip T. Goldstein Duprediction arrangement of symbol cards predicted
Inspired by Thabbatical 62
Philip T. Goldstein Duplex alphabet cards
Inspired by Thabbatical 67
Edward Marlo Mental Lie
  • First Method (memorized deck)
  • Second Method (stay stack)
Inspired by Facsimile (Issue 3) 45
Philip T. Goldstein The Mockingbird missing card divined, part of the "Birds of Prey" locations
Connotes 2
Peter Duffie Eleven Plus stay stack principle, number prediction
Also published here
  • Imagine
Duffie's Card Compulsions 170
Peter Duffie Eleven Plus Plus stay stack principle
Duffie's Card Compulsions 173
Philip T. Goldstein The Mockingbird missing card divined, part of the "Birds of Prey" locations
Desert Seminar Notes 3
Doug Canning Spell Found card located by spelling This Is Not Your Card and But This Is
Inspired by The Trapdoor — Volume Three (Issue 61) 1190
Peter Duffie Mirror Power Variation of Power of Thought, four of a kind produced as they are at same position in two piles, matches spectator's thought of value (first published in Powerth, Peter Duffie, 1993)
Inspired by Effortless Card Magic 41
Peter Duffie Two Way Mirror Variation of Power of Thought, two spectators think of a value each, when two piles are dealt, the only matching pairs of mates matches the two thought of values
Inspired by Effortless Card Magic 43
Philip T. Goldstein The Mockingbird missing card divined, part of the "Birds of Prey" location
FISM '97 5
Peter Duffie The Unknown Entity Convoluted coincidence effect with two packets, one packet counted down to find mate in other packet (two cards, two piles, but not same position)
Effortless Card Magic 38
Peter Duffie Matchical Mix Two Cards, Two Piles, Same position - selection and mate
Effortless Card Magic 40
Philip T. Goldstein The Mockingbird missing card divined, part of the "Birds of Prey" location, in english and french
Montreal Lecture Notes — Notes de Conférence 3
Allan Ackerman Finally Matched ending phase
Inspired byVariations Classic Handlings 29
Ted Gillam Pairs Stay Stack. Spectator stops on pairs of cards that match.
Also published here Cunning Card Miracles 54
Paul Swinford Judah's Undue Goano Revisited three phases
  • Stay Stack Version
Inspired by
  • "The S. J. Mutus Dedit Trick" (Stewart Judah, Linking Ring, Feb. 1964)
Card File Two 33
Karl Fulves Igor two packets, card chosen in one matches up with vampire in other packet when counted simultaneously
Inspired by
  • "Staggered" (Eddie Joseph)
Lost Vampire Secrets 173
Howard A. Adams Notes on Ramasee historical comments
Related to
  • "The Ramasee Prophecy" (OICUFESP)
Latter Day Secrets (Issue 2) 41
Peter Duffie Colorosity Plus! two odd-colored cards are eventually in two piles, the add up to a number prediction (7/8 force stack)
New Inspirations 9
Michael DeMarco Mate Separate spectator cuts off packet, performer shuffles the same number of cards between two mates
Variations Latter Day Secrets (Issue 5) 132
Peter Duffie Here We Go Again...
Cards By All Means 10
Philip T. Goldstein No, it is Open: One Position a/k/a Rotator
match with small packet stay stack (optional: slot machine cards)
Redivider 6
Philip T. Goldstein Rotator (II) match with small packet stay stack
Redivider 10
Philip T. Goldstein Rotator (III) match with small packet stay stack
Redivider 11
Philip T. Goldstein Pseudo D/U ESP double match with small packet stay stack
Redivider 12
Philip T. Goldstein Never Odd or Even a/k/a I Prefer Pi
Rotator as number force
Related to Redivider 14
Philip T. Goldstein, Peter Duffie On Add-a-No
Redivider 17
Philip T. Goldstein Cutting a small Stay Stack
Redivider 17
Philip T. Goldstein Toll a Total, a Total Lot a/k/a Must Sum
taking cards from two piles
Redivider 21
Philip T. Goldstein Word Row forcing a word with alphabet cards
Redivider 23
Philip T. Goldstein 力ルイ千ビンナコネコナンビ千イル力? a/k/a Stack Cats
Related to Redivider 26
Philip T. Goldstein Senile Felines repeat version of previous trick
Redivider 29
Philip T. Goldstein Swap Paws
Redivider 31
Philip T. Goldstein Test Set card removed from ten-card-ESP-packet divined by spelling, outgrowth of "Symbulation" (Linking Ring, April 1996)
Redivider 32
Philip T. Goldstein Retinue Reuniter five cards torn (to build stack) and magically paired, Ramasee principle
Redivider 35
Philip T. Goldstein Or Torn Rotor
Inspired by Redivider 39
Philip T. Goldstein Yo! Bet no Monte, Boy. a/k/a Roll, or...
matching effect with three cards torn in half and a die
Redivider 40
Philip T. Goldstein Deci-Diced poker themed version with five cards of previous effect
Redivider 43
Philip T. Goldstein O, Decide Dice, Do version of "Roll, or..." with two die
Redivider 44
Philip T. Goldstein Tie It
Redivider 46
Philip T. Goldstein Want no Die? I Don't; Naw.
Redivider 47
Philip T. Goldstein Wondered? No, Psi is Pondered Now. two sets of ESP cards mixed by spectator who then choses (via procedure) five cards, exactly one of each
Redivider 48
Philip T. Goldstein Evil Duo, Loud & Live a/k/a Satire = Veritas
story presentation
Redivider 52
Philip T. Goldstein Revolt, Lover two four-of-a-kinds are paired, ramasee principle
Redivider 57
Philip T. Goldstein Mull I, Will I Win? I Will, I Will! Um... a/k/a Engage Le Jeu Que Je Le Gagne
a/k/a Drawer's Reward
Dead Man's Hand presentation
Redivider 62
Philip T. Goldstein No Casino Con is a Con a/k/a Of Nil Info
psychic poker
Redivider 69
Philip T. Goldstein Cutting and Mixing a small Stay Stack
Redivider 8
Robin Robertson Remarcoble
  • Phase I: A Puzzling Match
  • Phase II: Matched Again
  • Phase III: Gemini Twins
  • Phase IV: Pairs, Pairs Wherever You Like
Inspired by Latter Day Secrets (Issue 9) 352
Wesley James The Sigma Principle force in which spectator cuts off pile, counts it and counts down that many cards in rest
Enchantments 101
Karl Fulves Gray Reflections about the color distribution in mirror stack after cuts
Combo II 117
Harry Riser Countdown Matcho cut-to selection matched by counting down to a number
Also published here
  • MUM, Dec. 2004
Secrets of an Escamoteur 145
Harry Riser Stay, Stay-Stack, Stack deck is mated in two stages
Also published here
  • MUM, Nov. 2004
Secrets of an Escamoteur 157
Michael Powers Hide and Seek selection fairly lost, faro
Inspired by
  • "The Cardician is In!" (Doug Canning, Card Capers)
Related to
Power Plays 108
Harry Riser Double Triple Match ten red-backed and ten blue-backed cards mixed together, two chosen, they match and also match a card put in the Himber wallet, repeat phase, SBS double facers
Also published here
  • MUM, Oct. & Nov. 1999
Secrets of an Escamoteur 148
Roy Walton Our Relations ten-card packet, card chosen, selection and its mate found
Prolix (Issue 5) 284
Jerry K. Hartman Psi-Cycle two halves, dealt in unison face-down, spectator indicates a few pairs that are set aside, they match
Inspired by
  • "Tri-Cycle" (Jim Turnpaugh, Linking Ring, Jan. 2008, p. 105)
Related to
Prolix (Issue 6) 369
Woody Aragon Coincidences with Incidences two selections from face-up face-down deck are mates, then two piles made and shuffled by audience have matching mates
A Book in English 97
John Born Finally Matched Revisited Multi-phase matching effect
Inspired by Seeking the Bridge 113
Persi Diaconis, Ron Graham A Mind-Reading Computer Packet of twelve cards, go through various dealing and shuffling procedures, create a pair of matching mates
Magical Mathematics 85
Jim Steinmeyer, Eddie Joseph Flummoxed three phases, single-deck approach for Eddie Joseph's "Staggered" stack
Ensuing Impuzzibilities 18
Persi Diaconis Stay Stack Dealing Property
Related to Quarterly (Issue 3 (Summer 2015)) 35
Pit Hartling Stay Stack Faro Shuffle Handling
Quarterly (Issue 3 (Summer 2015)) 36
Denis Behr Stay Stack Finale deck mates itself without a move
Quarterly (Issue 3 (Summer 2015)) 37
Steve Beam Proximity and Time Deck is repeatedly shuffled and then cut in two by a spectator. Despite the mixing, the cards twice rearrange themselves into the same order as those in the other packet.
Semi-Automatic Card Tricks — Volume 9 21
Tomas Blomberg Late Key Two selected cards from a deck, one is lost and the other one is placed in spectator´s pocket. This deck and another one are dealt at the same time, magician stops at the first selected card and at the duplicate of the second selection
Related to
  • "Staggered" (Eddie Joseph, Staggered, 1950)
Blomberg Laboratories 137
John Hostler Noeyeon Protocol
  • Noeyeon Prediction (Ungimmicked)
  • Neo Noeyeon (Gimmicked)
card pocketed by performer, spectator deals down and stops, mate of pocketed card (ungimmicked) or odd-backed duplicate (gimmicked)
Magnum Opossum 112
Ryan Plunkett, Michael Feldman Stay Stack: An Introduction Describing the basics of Stay Stacks
A New Angle 60
Ryan Plunkett Twin Peeks Know which card spectator is peeking at during riffle peek
Related to A New Angle 64
Ryan Plunkett Ode to Rusduck card and location divined by magician
A New Angle 79
Denis Behr Mating Season
  • Phase One - Poker-Hand Duplication
  • Phase Two - Speed Mating
  • Phase Three - All at Once
Inspired byRelated to Handcrafted Card Magic — Volume 3 29
Asi Wind Noah spectator cuts to card and another one choses its mate, two spectators then count to a card in half the deck each under the table and they match, then three cards are mated in the deck at once, then whole deck
Paper Work 11
Asi Wind Stay Stack Set-up Trick setting up a stay stack during a location
Inspired by
  • "Impromptu Deaf Nor Stupid" (Juan Tamariz, Magic from my Heart, DVD 1)
Paper Work 12
Pepe Lirrojo Stay Stack System is the future on the stay stack
Some Different Stuff 4
Pepe Lirrojo, Gianfranco Preverino Some properties different properties of the stay stack
Some Different Stuff 4
Pepe Lirrojo Changing between different orders how to get from stay stack to other stacks
Some Different Stuff 4
Pepe Lirrojo Is it a coincidence? Is it a lucky break? Or is it Magic? three phases
Some Different Stuff 5
Pepe Lirrojo Looking for the sisters three phases, finding mates
Some Different Stuff 6
Pepe Lirrojo A special Stay-Stack, Stay Cardozo stay-stack meets cyclical stack
Some Different Stuff 8
Pepe Lirrojo Find it using the Stay Cardozo stack to locate cards, faro method
Some Different Stuff 8
Kyle Everitt The Add Stack forcing number 170
Epoch (Vol. 1 No. 1) 3
Ronald A. Wohl (Ravelli) Simplicity Pick-up Procedures dealing a stay stack into any number of piles
Also published here
  • Aziz & Beyond, part 5
Epoch (Vol. 1 No. 1) 3